[GADV]-protein world hypothesis

A possible evolutionary process of emergence of life based upon the GADV hypothesis is as follows. [GADV]-amino acids were synthesized on the primitive Earth. It is well known that [GADV]-amino acids can be easily synthesized in Miller type experiments. [GADV]-proteins were produced, for example, by repeated heat-drying processes of [GADV]-amino acids in tide pools on the primitive Earth, and were further accumulated by pseudo-replication to form [GADV]-protein world. Subsequently, nucleotides and oligonucleotides were synthesized by their high catalytic activities in the world. The accumulation of oligonucleotides triggered the generation of GNC primeval genetic code through stereospecific complex formation among four [GADV]-amino acids and four corresponding GNC-containing oligonucletoides.

More efficient synthesis of [GADV]-proteins with the complexes than direct synthesis among individual [GADV]-amino acids assisted establishing the GNC primeval genetic code generation. Next, GNC-repeating sequences were produced by random phosphodiester bond formation on chiral [GADV]-proteins or by linear arrangement of GNC codons in the complexes of GNC-containing oligonucleotides and [GADV]-amino acids.

Thus, the first single-stranded (GNC)n gene was created, when one (GNC)n sequence encoding a [GADV]-protein with the required function was selected from a pool of (GNC)n polynucleotides, leading to the emergence of the first life. How the “chicken and egg relationship” between genes and proteins was formed on the primitive Earth also can be explained from the standpoint of GADV hypothesis as going up from the lower ([GADV]-protein synthesis) to the upper stream (creation of genes) of the genetic flow. In the RNA world hypothesis, it seems difficult to find a reasonable strategy for creation of the first gene. The notion of GNC primeval genetic code gave a motivation for introduction of the new concept or pseudo-replication of [GADV]-proteins.

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