ELSI International Workshop

ELSI International Workshop on History and Philosophy of Origins Research (ELSI, Tokyo Institute of Technology, August 24-26th, 2016 in Tokyo, Japan).

Kenji Ikenara, The Key for solving the Riddle on the Origin of Life is Protein 0th-order Structure. (Open University of Japan; Oral Presentation)


  1. Ikehara K. Degeneracy of the genetic code has played an important role in evolution of organisms. SOJ Genet Sci; 3: 1-3 (2016).
  2. Ikehara K. “GADV hypothesis on the origin of life –Life emerged in this way-” LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany (2016).
  3. Ikehara, K. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach). Life (Basel), 6, 6 (2016).
  4. Ikehara, K. Evolutionary steps in the emergence of life have come into view. Atlas of Science, May 1 (2016).
  5. Ikehara K. [GADV]-protein world hypothesis on the origin of life. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 44, 299–302 (2014).
  6. Ikehara, K. Protein ordered sequences are formed by random joining of amino acids in protein 0th-order structure, followed by evolutionary process. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 44, 279–281 (2014).
  7. [GADV]-Protein World Hypothesis on the Origin of Life. Kenji Ikehara,“Genesis: In the Beginning: Precursors of Life, Chemical Models and Early Biological Evolution”. Seckbach, J. (ed.), Springer, 107-122 (2012).
  8. Kenji Ikehara, “Origin of the Genetic Code and Genetic Disorders”(“Advances in the Study of Genetic Disorders”, K. Ikehara, Ed.) InTech-Open Access Publisher (November, 2011)
  9. Pseudo-replication of [GADV]-proteins and Origin of Life, Kenji Ikehara, Int. J. Mol. Sci., (International Journal of Molecular Sciences) Vol. 10, No. 4, 1525-1537 (2009)
  10. Kenji Ikehara, GNC-SNS Hypothesis of the Origin and Evolution of the Genetic Code. As a Chapter 4.06 in “Proncipia Bi®o-informatica” by J.C.Biro (2009).
  11. Origin and Evolutionary Process of the Genetic Code. Kenji Ikehara and Yuka Niihara, Current Medicinal Chemistry (CMC) Vol. 14, No. 30, 3221-3231 (2007).
  12. Catalytic Activities of [GADV]-Peptides: Formation and establishment of [GADV]-protein world for the emergence of life. Takae Oba, Jun Fukushima, Masako Maruyama, Ryoko Iwamoto and Kenji Ikehara, Olig. Life Evol. Biosph., Vol. 35, No. 5, 447-460 (2005).
  13. Possible Steps to the Emergence of Life: The [GADV]-Protein World Hypothesis. Kenji Ikehara, The Chemical Record, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 107-118 (2005).
  14. A Novel Theory on the Origin of the Genetic Code: A GNC-SNS Hypothesis. Kenji Ikehara, Yoko Omori, Rieko Arai and Akiko Hirose, J. Mol. Evol., Vol. 54, 530-538 (2002).
  15. Origins of Gene, Genetic Code, Protein and Life: comprehensive view of life systems from a GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis (a modified English version of the paper appeared in Viva Origino, Vol. 29, 66-85 (2001)) Kenji Ikehara, J. Biosci., Vol. 27, 165-186 (2002).
  16. A Possible Origin of Newly-Born Bacterial Genes: Significance of GC-rich nonstop frame on antisense strand. Kenji Ikehara, Fumiko Amada, Shigeko Yoshida, Yuji Mikata and Akira Tanaka, Nucl. Acids Res., Vol. 24, 4249-4255 (1996).
  17. Unusually Biased Nucleotide Sequences on Sense Strands of Flavobacterium sp. Genes Produce Nonstop Frames on the Corresponding Antisense Strands. Kenji Ikehara, and Eriko Okazawa, Nucleic Acids Res., Vol. 21, No. 9, 2193-2199 (1993).